University of California, Riverside

Bourns College of Engineering



Charles Wyman


Faculty Profile

Faculty Profile

Charles Wyman

Ford Motor Company, Chair
Distinguished Professor of Chemical & Environmental Engineering
Charles Wyman

Ph.D. Chemical Engineering
Princeton University, 1971

Bourns Hall A215
University of California, Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521

Telephone: 951-827-6238 or 951-781-5703
Facsimile: 951-827-5696
E-mail: cewyman@engr.ucr.edu
Personal Website

Former Institution: Queneau Distinguished Professor in Environmental Engineering Design at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College

Biography

Charles Wyman has devoted most of his career to leading advancement of technology for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. In the fall of 2005, he joined the University of California at Riverside as a Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and the Ford Motor Company Chair in Environmental Engineering with a research focus on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to produce reactive intermediates for conversion to fuels and chemicals. Before joining UCR, he was the Paul E. and Joan H. Queneau Distinguished Professor in Environmental Engineering Design at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. Dr. Wyman recently founded Vertimass LLC that is devoted to commercialization of novel catalytic technology for simple one-step conversion of ethanol to fungible gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel blend stocks. Dr. Wyman is also cofounder and former Chief Development Officer and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for Mascoma Corporation, a startup focused on biomass conversion to ethanol and other products.

Before joining Dartmouth College in the fall of 1998, Dr. Wyman was Director of Technology for BC International and led process development for the first cellulosic ethanol plant planned for Jennings, Louisiana. Between 1978 and 1997, he served as Director of the Biotechnology Center for Fuels and Chemicals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado; Director of the NREL Alternative Fuels Division; and Manager of the Biotechnology Research Branch. During that time, he held several other leadership positions at NREL, mostly focused on R&D for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. He has also been Manager of Process Development for Badger Engineers, an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of New Hampshire, and a Senior Chemical Engineer with Monsanto Company.

Wyman has a BS degree in chemical engineering from the University of Massachusetts, MA and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Princeton University, and an MBA from the University of Denver. He has contributed over 155 peer-reviewed papers, 25 book chapters, many edited volumes, over 250 presentations many of which were invited, about 25 technical reports, and 21 patents.  He edited a recent book on aqueous pretreatment of cellulosic biomass to which he also contributed several chapters as well as a previous cellulosic ethanol book. Among honors received are election as a Fellow in the American Association for Advancement of Science and being chosen as a Tang Lecturer at the University of Massachusetts. In addition to his role as a founder and Co-Editor-in-Chief of Biotechnology for Biofuels, Wyman is on the editorial board of several technical journals and the board of directors and advisors for several organizations and institutions.

Degrees

  • Ph.D. Chemical Engineering 1971 Princeton University
  • M.A. Chemical Engineering 1969 Princeton University
  • MBA Business Administration 1988 University of Denver
  • B.S. Chemical Engineering 1967 University of Massachusetts

Awards

    • Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 2016
    • Fellow, American Association for Advancement of Science, 2006
    • Honorary Master of Arts, Dartmouth College, 2004
    • C.D. Scott Award in Biotechnology, 1999
    • NREL Hubbard Leadership Award, 1992
    • NREL Staff Leadership Award, 1991
    • Who's Who in Science and Engineering
    • Who's Who in the West
    • Who's Who in the World
    • Who's Who of Emerging Leaders in America
    • Beta Gamma Sigma
    • Phi Kappa Phi
    • Sigma Xi
    • Tau Beta Pi

Research Areas

Consistent with virtually all his career, Professor Wyman’s UCR research focuses on conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals to address critical issues in the release of greenhouse gases, sustainable energy production, and strategic and economic vulnerability.  In particular, our research targets aqueous phase processing (APP) of abundant, non-food cellulosic biomass (e.g., energy crops such as poplar hardwood and switchgrass and agricultural residues such as corn stover) into commodity products including ethanol for use as a transportation fuel.  Dr. Wyman has long believed that biomass is the most economical way to store solar energy and that biofuels present the only sustainable option to reduce our petroleum dependence for liquid transportation fuels on a large scale.  Thus, a substantial portion of our research is directed at experimentation and modeling to enhance knowledge of the most expensive and critical unit operations for conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products: pretreatment, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to sugars, and breakdown of sugars to their dehydration products.  These sugars and their dehydration products that we call fuel precursors can be biologically or catalytically converted into fuels and chemicals. A second element focuses on design of systems for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals with the goal of identifying opportunities to advance technology and substantially reduce costs.  Our former graduate students, post docs, and research professionals have gone on to careers in industry and academia.  The Wyman laboratory is located at the Center for Environmental Research and Technology of the Bourns College of Engineering (CE-CERT), about 2 miles from the main UCR campus.  We are grateful to the Ford Motor Company for funding the Endowed Chair in Environmental Engineering at CE-CERT that greatly enhances our research program.  Our APP Research Team has been supported by a number of major sponsors including: 1) the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center supported by the Biological and Environmental Research Office in the DOE Office of Science; 2) the DOE BioEnergy Technology Office (BETO); 3) the NRICGP Program of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); 4) USDA through a subcontract from UC Davis; 5) the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD); 6) the US Department of Transportation through the Western Sun Grant Program; 7) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); 8) the DOE Office of the Biomass Program; 9) DARPA through a subcontract to the University of Massachusetts; 10) DARPA through a subcontract to Logos Technologies; 11) the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) through Dartmouth College; and 12) Mascoma Corporation.

 

Selected Publications

    • Mostofian B., Cai C.M., Smith M.D., Petridis L., Cheng X., Wyman C.E., and Smith J.C. 2016. “Local Phase Separation of Co-Solvents Enhances Biomass Pretreatment for Bioenergy Applications,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, accepted. PDF

    • Bhagia S., Nunez A., Kumar R., Wyman C.E. 2016 “Robustness of Two-Step Acid Hydrolysis Procedure for Compositional Analysis of Poplar,” Bioresource Technology 216:1077.

    • Bhagia S., Muchero W., Kumar R., Tuskan G.A., Wyman C.E. 2016. “Natural Genetic Variability Reduces Recalcitrance in Poplar,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9:106. PDF

    • da Costa Sousa L, Jin M, Chundawat SPS, Bokade V, Tang X, Azarpira A, Lu F, Avci U, Humpula J, Uppugundla N, Gunawan C, Pattathil S, Cheh AM, Kothari N, Kumar R, Ralph J, Hahn MG, Wyman CE, Singh S, Simmons BA, Dale BE, Balan V. 2016. “Next-Generation Ammonia Pretreatment Enhances Cellulosic Biofuel Production,” Energy & Environment Science, 9(4), 1215-1223. PDF

    • Paye JMD, Guseva A, Hammer SK, Gjersing E, Davis MF, Davison BH, Olstad J, Donohoe BS, Nguyen TY, Wyman CE, Pattathil S, Hahn MG, Lynd LR. 2016. Biological Lignocellulose Solubilization: Comparative Evaluation of Biocatalysts and Enhancement via Cotreatment. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9(1), 1-13. PDF

    • Smith MD, Mostofian B, Cheng X, Petridis L, Cai CM, Wyman CE, Smith JC. 2016. “Cosolvent Pretreatment in Cellulosic Biofuel Production: Effect of Tetrahydrofuran-Water on Lignin Structure and Dynamics,” Green Chemistry, 18(5), 1268-1277. PDF

    • Nguyen TY, Cai CM, Osman O, Kumar R, Wyman CE. 2016. “CELF Pretreatment of Corn Stover Boosts Ethanol Titers and Yields from High Solids SSF with Low Enzyme Loadings,” Green Chemistry, 18, 1581-1589. PDF

    • Srivastava AC, Chen F, Ray T, Pattathil S, Peña MJ, Avci U, Li H, Huhman DV, Backe J, Urbanowicz B, Miller JS, Bedair M, Wyman CE, Sumner LW, York WS, Hahn MG, Dixon RA, Blancaflor EB, Tang Y. 2015. “Loss of Function of Folylpolyglutamate Synthetase 1 Reduces Lignin Content and Improves Cell Wall Digestibility in Arabidopsis,”Biotechnology for Biofuels, 8(1), 1-18. PDF

    • Paye JMD, Guseva A, Hammer SK, Gjersing E, Davis MF, Davison BH, Olstad J, Donohoe BS, Nguyen TY, Wyman CE, Pattathil S, Hahn MG, Lynd LR. 2016. “Biological Lignocellulose Solubilization: Comparative Evaluation of Biocatalysts and Enhancement via Cotreatment,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9(1), 1-13. PDF

    • DeMartini JD, Foston M, Meng X, Jung S, Kumar R, Ragauskas AJ, Wyman CE. 2015. “How Chip Size Impacts Steam Pretreatment Effectiveness for Biological Conversion of Poplar Wood into Fermentable Sugars,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 8: 209. PDF

    • Wyman CE, Ragauskas AJ. 2015. “Lignin Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels,” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining,9, 447-449. PDF

    • Foston M, Trajano HL, Samuel R, Wyman CE, He J, Ragauskas AJ. 2015. “Recalcitrance and structural analysis by water-only flowthrough pretreatment of 13C enriched corn stover stem,” Bioresource Technology197, 128-136.PDF

    • Wyman, CE, Dale BE. 2015. "Producing Biofuels via the Sugar Platform,"Chemical Engineering Progress, 111(3), 45-51. PDF

    • Nguyen YT, Cai CM, Kumar R, Wyman CE. 2015. “Co-Solvent Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass,” ChemSusChem, 8, 1716-1725. PDF 

    • Singh S, Cheng G, Sathitsuksanoh N, Wu D, Varanasi P, George A, Balan V, Gao X, Kumar R, Dale BE, Wyman CE, Simmons BA. 2015. “Comparison of Different Biomass Pretreatment Techniques and their Impact on Chemistry and Structure,” Frontiers in Energy Research, 2. PDF

    • Trajano HL, Pattathil S, Tomkins BA, Tschaplinski TJ, Hahn MG, Van Berkel GJ, Wyman CE. 2015. "Xylan Hydrolysis in Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides and Model Substrates during Hydrothermal Pretreatment," Bioresource Technology179, 202-210. PDF

    •  Zhang T, Kumar R, Tsai YD, Elander R, Wyman C. 2015. "Xylose Yields and Relationship to Combined Severity for Dilute Acid Post-Hydrolysis of Xylooligomers from Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Corn Stover," Green Chemistry, 17 (1), 394-403. PDF

    • Sun Q, Foston M, Meng X, Sawada D, Pingali S, O'Neill H, Li H, Wyman CE, Langan P, Ragauskas A, Kumar R. 2014. "Effect of Lignin Content on Changes Occurring in Poplar Cellulose Ultrastructure during Dilute Acid Pretreatment,"Biotechnology for Biofuels, 7(1), 150. PDF

    • Brethauer S, Studer MH, Wyman CE. 2014. "Application of a Slurry Feeder to 1 and 3 Stage Continuous Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dilute Acid Pretreated Corn Stover," Bioresource Technology,  170: 470-476. PDF

    • Ragauskas AJ, Beckham GT, Biddy MJ, Chandra R, Chen F, Davis MF, Davison BH, Dixon RA, Gilna P, Keller M, Langan P, Naskar AK,Saddler JN,Tschaplinski TJ, Tuskan GA, and Wyman CE. 2014. "Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery,". Science, 344(6185). PDF

    • Cai CM, Nagane N, Kumar R, Wyman CE. 2014. "Coupling Metal Halides With a Green Co-solvent to Produce Furfural and 5-HMF at High Yields Directly from Lignocellulosic Biomass as an Integrated Biofuels Strategy," Green Chemistry, 16, 3819-3829. PDF

    •  Lindedam J, Bruun S, Jørgensen H, Decker SR, Turner GB, DeMartini JD, Wyman CE, Felby C. 2014. “Evaluation of High Throughput Screening Methods in Picking Up Differences Between Cultivars of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Ethanol Production,”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 66, 261-274. PDF

    • Uppugundla N, Sousa LDC, Chundawat SPS, Yu X, Simmon B, Singh S, Gao X, Kumar R, Wyman CE, Dale BE, Balan V. 2014. “A Comparative Study of Ethanol Production using Dilute Acid, Ionic Liquid, and AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover,” Biotechnology for Biofuels7:72PDF

    •  Kumar R, Wyman CE. 2014. " Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysachharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 111 (7), 1341-1353. PDF .  

    • Sun Q, Foston M, Sawada D, Pingali S, O’Neill H, Li H, Wyman C, Langan P, Pu Y, Ragauskas A. 2014. "Comparison of Changes in Cellulose Ultrastructure during Different Pretreatments of Poplar,". Cellulose, 21(4), 2419-2431. PDF

    • Gao X, Kumar R, Singh S, Simmon B, Balan V, Dale B, and Wyman CE. 2014. “Comparison of Enzymatic Reactivity of Corn Stover Solids Prepared by Dilute Acid, AFEX, and Ionic Liquid Pretreatments,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 7:71. PDF

    • Gao X, Kumar R, Wyman CE. 2014 .“Fast Hemicellulose Quantification via a Simple One-step Acid Hydrolysis,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 111 (6), 1088-1096. PDF

    • Bond JQ, Upadhye AA, Olcay H, Tompsett G, Jae J, XingR, Alonso DM, Wang D, Zhang T, Kumar R, Foster A, Sen SM, Maravelias CT, Malina R, Barrett SRH, Lobo R, Wyman CE, Dumesic JA, and Huber GW. 2014. “Production of Renewable Jet Fuel Range Alkanes and Commodity Chemicals From Integrated Catalytic Processing of Biomass,”Energy and Environmental Science, 7, 1500-1523. PDF

    • Li H, Pattathil S, Foston MB, Ding S, Kumar R, Gao X, Mittal A, Yarbrough JM, Himmel ME, Ragauskas AJ, Hahn MG,  and Wyman CE. 2014. “Agave Proves To Be a Low Recalcitrant Lignocellulosic Feedstock For Biofuels Production on Semi-Arid Lands,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 7:50.PDF

    • Li H, Pu Y, Kumar R, Ragauskas AJ, Wyman CE. 2013. "Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose during Hydrothermal Pretreatment, its Effect on Cellulose Hydrolysis, and Underlying Mechanisms," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 111 (3), 485-492. PDF

    • Cai CM, Zhang T, Kumar R, Wyman CE. 2013. "THF Co-solvent Enhances Hydrocarbon Fuel Precursor Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass," Green Chemistry, 15, 3140-3145. PDF

    • Cai CM, Zhang T, Kumar R, and Wyman CE. 2013. “Integrated Furfural Production As A Renewable Fuel And Chemical Platform From Lignocellulosic Biomass,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 89 (1), 2-10. PDF

    • Trajano HL, Engle NL, Foston MB, Ragauskas AJ, Tschaplinski TJ, and Wyman CE. 2013. “The Fate of Lignin During Hydrothermal Pretreatment,” Biotechnology for Biofuels6 :110PDF

    • Li H, Gao X, DeMartini JD, Kumar R., and Wyman CE. 2013. “Application of High Throughput Pretreatment and Co-Hydrolysis System to Thermochemical Pretreatment. Part 2: Dilute Alkali," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 110 (11), 2894-2901. PDF

    • Trajano HL, DeMartini JD, Studer MH, Wyman CE. 2013. “Comparison of The Effectiveness of a Fluidized Sand Bath and a Steam Chamber For Reactor Heating,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research52 (13): 4932-4938. PDF

    • Meng X, Foston M, Leisen J, DeMartini JD, Wyman CE, and Ragauskas AJ. 2013. “Determination Of Porosity Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Before And After Pretreatment By Using Simons’ Stain And NMR Techniques,”Bioresource Technology144: 467-476PDF

    • Li H, Qing Q, Kumar R, and Wyman CE. 2013. “Chromatographic Determination Of 1, 4-Β-Xylooligosaccharides Of Different Chain Lengths To Follow Xylan Deconstruction In Biomass Conversion," Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 40 (6) : 551-559PDF

    • Zhang T, Kumar R, and Wyman CE. 2013. " Enhanced Yields of Furfural and Other Products by Simultaneous Solvent Extraction during Thermochemical Treatment of Cellulosic Biomass," RSC Advances, 3 : 9809-9819. PDF

    • DeMartini JD, Pattathil S, Miller JS, Li H, Hahn MG, and Wyman CE. 2013. “Investigating plant cell wall components that affect biomass recalcitrance in poplar and switchgrass,” Energy and Environmental Science6 (3): 898-909.PDF

    • Gao X., Kumar R., DeMartini JD., Li H., and Wyman CE. 2013 “Application of High Throughput Pretreatment and Co-Hydrolysis System to Thermochemical Pretreatment. Part1: Dilute Acid “, Biotechnology and Bioengineering,110 (3): 754-762PDF

    • Kumar R., Hu F., Sannigrahi P., Jung S., Ragauskas A.J., and Wyman C.E. 2013. “Carbohydrate Derived Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering110 (3): 737-753.PDF

    • Kumar R., Hu F., Hubbell CA., Ragauskas AJ., and Wyman CE. 2013. "Comparison of Laboratory Delignification Methods, Their Selectivity, and Impacts on Physiochemical Characteristics of Cellulosic Biomass,” Bioresource Technology, 130: 372-381. PDF

    • Zhang T., Kumar R., and Wyman CE. 2012 "Comparison of Glucose and Xylose Yields from Dilute Oxalic Acid Pretreatment and Subsequent Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Red Maple to Results Using Dilute Sulfuric Acid, Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, and Hydrothermal Pretreatments," Carbohydrate Polymers, 92 (1) : 334-344. PDF

    • Urbanowicz BR, Pena MJ, Ratnaparkhe S, Avci U, Backe J, Steet HF, Foston MB, Li H, O'Neill MA, Ragauskas AJ, Darvill AG, Wyman CE, Gilbert HS, York WS. 2012. "4-O-methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a Domin of Unknown Function family 579 protein", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 109(35):14253-14258. PDF

    • Zhang T, Wyman CE, Jakob K, Yang B. 2012. “Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis,”Biotechnology for Biofuels5: 56. PDF

    • Li, H., Foston, M. B., Kumar R., Samuel R., Gao X., Hu F., Ragauskas A.J., Wyman C.E. 2012. "Chemical Composition and Characterization of Cellulose for Agave as a Fast Growing, Drought Tolerant Biofuels Feedstock", RSC Advances, 2: 4951-4958. PDF

    • Cao S, Pu Y, Studer M, Wyman CE, Ragauskas AJ. 2012. "Chemical Transformations of Populus trichocarpa during Dilute acid Pretreatment," RSC Advances, 2 : 10925-10936. PDF

    • Lindedam J, Andersen SB, DeMartini JD, Bruun S, Jørgensen H, Felby C, Magid J, Yang B, Wyman CE. 2012. "Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw,"Biomass and Bioenergy, 37: 221-228. PDF

    • Shen J, Wyman CE. 2012. “Hydrochloric Acid-Catalyzed Levulinic Acid Formation from Cellulose in a Batch Reactor: Data and Kinetic Model to Maximize Yields,” AIChE Journal, 58 (1) : 236-246. PDF

    • Shen J, Wyman CE. 2011 "A Novel Mechanism and Kinetic Model to Explain Enhanced Xylose Yields from Dilute Sulfuric Acid Compared to Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Corn Stover," Bioresource Technology, 102: 9111-9120.PDF

    • DeMartini JD, Pattathil S, Avci U, Szekalski K, Mazumder K, Hahn MG, Wyman CE. 2011. “Application of monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels production,” Energy and Environmental Science, 4: 4332-4339. PDF

    • DeMartini JD, Wyman CE. 2011. “Composition and hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification performance of grasses and legumes from a mixed-species prairie,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4 (52); 1-10. PDF 

    • Shi J, Ebrik MA, Wyman CE. 2011. “Sugar Yields from Dilute Sulfuric and Sulfur Dioxide Pretreatments and Subsequent Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Switchgrass,” Bioresource Technology, 102: 8930-8938. PDF

    • Shen J, Wyman CE. 2011. "Application of a Reaction Model to Improve Calculation of the Sugar Recovery Standard for Sugar Analysis," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 109 (1) : 300-305. PDF

    • Studer MH, Brethauer S, DeMartini JD, McKenzie H, Wyman CE. 2011. “Co-Hydrolysis of Dilute Pretreated Populus Slurries to Support Development of a High Throughput Pretreatment System,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4 (19); 1-10. PDF

    • Wyman CE. 2011. "An Introduction to the Special Section on Application of Leading Pretreatments to Switchgrass by the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI)," Bioresource Technology 102(24): 11051. PDF

    • Wyman CE, Balan V, Dale BE, Elander RT, Falls M, Hames B, Holtzapple MT, Ladisch MR, Lee YY, Mosier N, Pallapolu VR, Shi J, Thomas SR, Warner RE. 2011. "Comparative Data on Effects of Leading Pretreatments and Enzyme Loadings and Formulations on Sugar Yields from Different Switchgrass Sources," Bioresource Technology,102: 11052-11062. PDF

    • Yang B, Dai Z, Ding SY Wyman CE. 2011."Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass: A Review," Biofuels, 2(4); 421-450. PDF

    • Falls M, Shi J, Ebrik M,Redmond T, Yang B, Wyman CE, Garlock RJ, Balan V, Dale BE, Pallapolu VR, Lee YY, Kim Y, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR, Hames B, Thomas S,Donohoe BS, Vinzant TB, Elander RT, Warner RE, Rocio SR,Holtzapple MT. 2011. “Investigation of Enzyme Formulation on Pretreated Switchgrass,” Bioresource Technology, 102: 11072-11079. PDF

    • Kim Y, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR, Pallapolu VR, Lee YY, Garlock RJ, Balan V, Dale BE, Donohoe BS, Vinzant TB, Elander RT, Warner RE,.Falls M, Rocio SR,Holtzapple MT,Shi J, Ebrik MA,Redmond T, Yang B, Wyman CE, Warner RE. 2011. “Comparative Study on Enzymatic Digestibility of Switchgrass Varieties and Harvests Processed by Leading Pretreatment Technologies," Bioresource Technology, 102: 11089-11096. PDF

    • Garlock RJ, Balan V, Dale BE, Pallapolu VR, Lee YY,Kim Y, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR,Falls M, Rocio SR,Holtzapple MT,Shi J, Ebrik MA,Redmond T, Yang B, Wyman CE,Donohoe BS, Vinzant TB, Elander RT,Hames B, Thomas S, Warner RE. 2011. “Comparative material balances around pretreatment technologies for the conversion of switchgrass to soluble sugars," Bioresource Technology, 102: 11063-11071. PDF

    • Pallapolu VR, Lee YY, Garlock RJ, Balan V, Dale BE, Kim Y, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR,Falls M, Holtzapple MT, Rocio SR,Shi J, Ebrik MA, Redmond T, Yang B, Wyman CE, Donohoe BS, Vinzant TB, Elander RT, Hames B, Thomas S, Warner RE. 2011. “Effects of enzyme loading and β-glucosidase supplementation on enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass processed by leading pretreatment technologies," Bioresource Technology, 102: 11115-11120. PDF

    • Donohoe BS, Vinzant TB, Elander RT,Pallapolu VR, Lee YY,Garlock RJ, Balan V, Dale BE, Kim Y, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR,Falls M,Holtzapple MT, Rocio SR,Shi J, Ebrik MA,Redmond T, Yang B, Wyman CE,Hames B, Thomas S, Warner RE. 2011. “Surface and ultrastructural characterization of raw and pretreated switchgrass, Bioresource Technology,102: 11097-11104. PDF

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